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Our Programs Advocacy Tools

43. Tips for Evaluating Advocacy (A Checklist for Grantees)




Description and Purpose:

This is a reference tool that builds understanding of the M&E requirements of grantors.


Read the following tips for evaluating advocacy, and incorporate lessons learned into your M&E system.

Discuss Evaluation Expectations Early
Grantors and grantees can arrive at a common understanding early on of reasonable advocacy expectations and of ways to demonstrate the grantee's contribution.

Develop Long-Term as well as Incremental Goals
Policy goals may take years or even decades to achieve. For instance, a grantee may have a long-term goal of including humane education within the schools curriculum nationally within ten years, and an incremental goal of including human education in all primary schools of one state/province within one year.

Use Benchmarks to Measure Outcomes, Progress, Capacity Building
A sample outcome benchmark may be obtaining a $1 million government funding for humane education programs; a progress benchmark could be support gained from a key policy-maker; a capacity building benchmark may be educating 100 supporters about the issue and mobilizing them to contact officials.

Use Benchmarks of Success that Target Relevant Audiences
Target audiences may include public officials, the public/constituents, other organizations, and the grantee’s own organization.

Tell the Story
Tell the story behind the benchmarks. Explain the process, and why something did or didn’t work.

Make Use of Available Evaluation Resources and Plan Ahead
Organizations' self-evaluations can be very informative. When planning to use outside evaluators, grantees should include them in early budgets.

Make the Evaluation Fit the Nature of the Advocacy Work Conducted
As an example, obtaining face-to-face meetings with key officials to discuss a policy issue might sound routine. In fact, the meetings might be hard-won, critical steps in an effort to influence policy-makers, and should be documented and evaluated accordingly.

Adapted from: Investing in Change - A Funder’s Guide to Supporting Advocacy A publication of Alliance for Justice

42. Advocacy Evaluation Case Study




Description and Purpose:

This tool is an example of an advocacy evaluation case study.


Analyze and write up an advocacy case study, using the following questions as a guide to structure.

The case study should take three to five minutes to explain.

  1. What was the problem?
  2. Who decided to advocate on the problem (i.e. brief details of the NGOs/AW organizations involved)?
  3. What was the advocacy objective?
  4. Who did you advocate to?
  5. What methods did you use?
  6. What difficulties did you face?
  7. How did you overcome any difficulties?
  8. What were the results of your advocacy?
  9. What factors (or activities) contributed to these results?
  10. 1If appropriate: where did you obtain the evidence or information that was used?
  11. 1What sources of assistance/support did you find most helpful?
  12. What did you learn from doing this advocacy?
  13. Why do you think this is an important example?
  14. What do you think your organization could learn from this example?

Use photos, drawings or other ‘visuals’ to provide a human/animal angle to your information. Are the people and organizations featured in your case study aware of how it might be used, and what the consequences might be?

Consider including the following:

  • Content & Process
  • Description of change – initial situation; what has changed; how it happened
  • Explanation for choice – who was involved; why this change is meaningful/relevant
  • Lessons/recommendations – what this change tells us
  • Selected by participants as part of review process
  • Reasons for choice and lessons/recommendations for follow-up discussed as part of selection process

40. Negotiation Technique Tips




Description and Purpose:

Tips on negotiation techniques.


Consider the following tips on negotiation techniques, and try to incorporate any that are suitable for your situation.

Negotiation Techniques

Negotiation is a process, not an event. There are predictable steps: preparation, creating the right climate, identifying interests, and selecting outcomes, that you will go through in any negotiation. The following are some tips to help with this process.

Know Yourself
Assess your strengths and weaknesses. Use your strengths and avoid or play down your weaknesses.

Do Your Research
Know who you’re negotiating with. What’s his or her reputation as a negotiator? Know their likes and dislikes, and past record.

Develop a sympathetic style of negotiation technique, and adapt this to suit the other party. The negotiation should leave a positive atmosphere, and not be antagonistic. Use body language and props effectively, and make good use of timing.

Practice Double and Triple Think
It’s not enough to know what you want out of negotiation. You also need to anticipate what the other party wants (double think). The smart negotiator also tries to anticipate what the other party thinks you want (triple think).

Really good negotiators are able to read the other person/people. They can take the role of an Objective Observer, retaining a calm, inner state of mind.

Build Rapport
Build a relationship over time. Be like them, and make them like you!

Build Trust
Without trust, there won’t be communication. Always be honest and trustworthy. Respect confidences, and deliver commitments.

Develop External Listening
Your inner dialogue (and worries) can stop you listening to others effectively. You should turn off this inner dialogue and concentrate on listening externally. Then you won’t miss important non-verbal messages, facial expressions of voice inflections etc. Also, use open questions, and check out anything you don’t understand.

Move Beyond Positions
In a negotiation, begin by stating your position. Later, when the trust has deepened, you and the other party can risk more honesty and identify your true interests. As a negotiator, you should ask questions that will uncover the needs or interests of the other party.

Own Your Power
Don’t assume that because the other party has one type of power, e.g. position power, that he or she is all-powerful. That is giving away your power! Assess the other party’s power source, and also your own. And use this! Your power will include internal power (for example, self-esteem, self-confidence etc.), as well as external power.

Know Your BATNA
BATNA stands for Best Alternative to A Negotiated Agreement. Before you begin a negotiation, know what your options are. What trade-offs are there? Can you walk away from the deal? What other choices do you have? What are the pros and cons of each choice? Effective negotiators are able to let go of their positions, giving up one want and choosing another.

Five Basic Principles

  • Be hard on the problem and soft on the person
  • Focus on needs, not positions
  • Emphasize common ground
  • Be inventive about options
  • Make clear agreements

The following may also be helpful:

12 Principles to Win People to Your Way of Thinking

  1. The only way to get the best out of an argument is to avoid it.
  2. Show respect for the other person’s opinions. Never say: ‘you are wrong’.
  3. If you are wrong, admit it quickly and emphatically.
  4. Begin in a friendly way.
  5. Get the other person saying ‘yes’ immediately.
  6. Let the other person do a great deal of talking.
  7. Let the other person feel that the idea is his or hers.
  8. Try honestly to see things from the other person’s point of view.
  9. Show sympathy with the other person’s ideas and desires.
  10. Appeal to the nobler motives.
  11. Dramatize your ideas.
  12. Throw down a challenge.
Source: Carnegie (1953)

41. Advocacy Outcomes and Achievements




Description and Purpose:

This tool can be used as a guide to the evaluation of your advocacy outcomes and achievements (for example, when setting indicators).


The following types of change can be used as a guide when developing an advocacy evaluation system. They show a whole range of areas where positive outcomes and achievements can be brought about (including: your own organization, partners, coalitions, policy-makers, animal status and welfare, and the general public).

The suggested changes:

  • Recognize the importance of partnerships/coalitions, relationships and capacity building
  • Recognize the various stages towards effective policy reform
  • Value civil society change
  • Include attitudinal change
  • Include subjective success criteria (which are recognized as necessary)

Your Own Organization

  • Changes in policy
  • Changes in working practices
  • Changes in capacity and skills
  • Changes in knowledge, awareness, and opinions (both on issue and policy context)
  • Changes in working relationships (with partners or coalitions)
  • Changes in policy influence (e.g. level of access to officials, consultation, part in decision-making etc.)
  • Changes in profile or reputation


  • Changes in policy
  • Changes in working practices (e.g. numbers working on advocacy for the first time, having advocacy strategies, advocacy research programs, advocacy M&E etc.)
  • Changes in capacity & skills
  • Changes in knowledge, awareness, & opinions (both on issue & policy context)
  • Change in importance ranking of the issue
  • Changes in working relationships (e.g. with coalitions)
  • Changes in policy influence (e.g. level of access to officials, consultation, part in decision-making etc.)
  • Changes in profile or reputation


  • Changes in policy
  • Changes in working practices (e.g. number of members working on advocacy for the first time, improvements to strategic planning, implementation, M&E, research, investigations or policy monitoring, management practices etc.)
  • Number of CSOs working on the issue
  • Level of activity
  • Changes in capacity & skills
  • Changes in knowledge, awareness, & opinions (both on issue & policy context)
  • Change in importance ranking of the issue
  • Changes in working relationships (participation, trust, involvement etc.)
  • Changes in structure and control (decentralization & democracy, facilitative leadership, diversity, dynamism etc.)
  • Increased synergy & coherence (of beliefs, strategy, activities etc.)
  • Changes in policy influence (e.g. (e.g. the issue taken on board by other interest groups, trades’ unions, professional bodies; level of access to officials and consultations; or the coalition brought into more decision-making bodies etc.)
  • Changes in profile or reputation

Policy/Policy Makers

  • Changes in policy
  • Change in legislation
  • Successful legal action
  • Changes in working practices – including implementation & enforcement
  • Change in budgets (allocated to issue, spent on issue, & value for money)
  • Increased accountability on issue
  • Increased forums for issue (committees etc.)
  • Change in written publications or statements
  • Changes in capacity – including size of unit(s), or number of individuals working on issue
  • Raised profile or coverage of issue
  • Changes in knowledge, awareness, & opinions
  • Change in importance ranking of the issue
  • Changes in working relationships (with civil society, coalition &/or advocates)
  • Increased opportunities for participation of civil society (openness, transparency, consultation, joint working groups etc.)
  • International agencies with interests in the issue identified, and their procedures for applying support mapped

Animal Status and Welfare

  • Changes in knowledge, awareness, and opinions
  • Change in importance ranking of the issue
  • Improvements in access to rights
  • Improved service delivery
  • Development of groups or forums for co-operation & mobilization
  • Development of animal welfare leadership
  • Changes in advocacy capacity & skills
  • Changes in advocacy practices & activity
  • Number attending meetings on the issue
  • Changes in policy influence (e.g. level of access to officials, consultation, part in decision-making etc.)
  • Changes in profile or reputation

It is also possible to evaluate other broader changes in public awareness e.g. through opinion polls, focus groups etc.

And to measure media coverage (against media type, number of programs/articles, length of coverage etc.) and public activism (e.g. by number signing petitions, writing representations, attending demonstrations etc.).

NB. Do not forget to measure ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ indicators of change. For example, to capture the soft indicators, you could keep a diary or spreadsheet that records every time the issue is raised in meetings, or raised directly with you. Record if the language used changes. Try to measure if you are being increasingly seen as a key player on the issue e.g. do people defer to your view in meetings, are you getting more requests for information, are you being contacted more for your opinion etc.

39. Making Presentations




Description and Purpose:

Tips on making presentations.


Consider the following tips on making presentations, and try to incorporate any that are suitable for your situation.

Talk Structure

Prepare Your Speech

Define your purpose WHY?
Know your audience WHO?
Select content and structure WHAT?

Ensure there are a clear introduction, middle and a conclusion.

You need to prepare your presentation thoroughly, and to practice and rehearse this.

In planning your presentation remember the importance of body language in impact:

The opening should grab the audience’s attention. The body should provide the substance and facts. Then the conclusion should be powerful and memorable

The Body of the Talk

  • Must have clear structure which audience can follow. It helps to set out the main points that will be covered in advance.
  • Restrict the amount covered. You will always take longer than you think! Simpler and focused messages are always more effective.
  • The audience will remember startling ideas, images, stories or facts. Make sure you have examples, stories, illustrations, slides, video clips, analogies, demonstrations and statistics.
  • If you are given a long time for the talk, break it up into short sections.
  • Do not read from your slides or your notes, as this will be boring!

The strong closing – end with a BANG! Leave a final memorable message.

Answering questions
This is an important part of the presentation. Questions can be used to correct misconceptions and move the audience towards your viewpoint. You can relax and act more informally in question session, developing a rapport with the audience. It helps to consider the audience and anticipate likely questions, and your response.

Where a question is unclear, it helps to repeat your understanding of the question before answering. This ensures the audience is aware of the question, and guards against misunderstandings.

You should dress smartly and appropriately to give a professional impression.

Managing Nerves
It is normal to be nervous! Here are a few tips to help you to manage your anxiety:

  • Relax. Drink a little water (but don’t risk alcohol, as this can be counter-productive).
  • Smile at your audience as they come in. Developing a rapport helps you to relax and encourages a sympathetic response.
  • Be prepared. Arrive in good time to check that all the equipment works and your notes are in place.
  • Expect things to go well and your audience to be friendly. Pretend you are confident, even if you do not feel it initially – you soon become confident!
  • Try relaxation and breathing exercises (very calming)
  • Above all, there is no substitute for practice!

Talk Aids
Audio-visual aids such as videos, slides, overhead projector transparencies and computer projectors (PowerPoint) can all improve a presentation. However, if badly used, they can be distracting and annoying! For example, do not be tempted to include too many words, or to turn your back to the audience to read the screen. Do not use too many audio-visual mediums in complex combinations – this has the potential for disaster!

You need to learn how to use them. You also need to be prepared to manage without them in case there is a technical problem! Always arrive early to check that the venue has the equipment you need (in working order) and that the room will have sufficient blackout.

Also, the use of stories, which are easier to remember than facts, and props, can help to illustrate points effectively.

  • Written: Reading out a speech can make it stilted and dull. If you need notes, key words on cards are recommended. Tie the cards together and number them, so you do not drop them or get lost.
  • Video: Video can be a powerful medium, combining sight and sound. Video should only be shown briefly during presentations, but is useful for breaking up presentations.
  • Slides: These are also very powerful. It is much easier to explain what it is like for animals in different systems with a picture on the screen. You need to ensure test the slides in advance to ensure that they are all the right way up and round. Different machines are loaded in different ways! Also, check that the projector is correctly focused.
  • PowerPoint Projectors: PowerPoint is becoming ever more popular, for very good reasons. It can allow a variety of effects on one medium – Notes, photos and video. However, they can lead to technological problems! Most screens (except video) can be printed onto OHP transparencies, as back up.

  • You can take your presentation on a computer disk, or take your own laptop and link this up to the projector.
  • Overhead projectors (OHPs): These have less impact, but are most commonly available. You can even buy your own portable machine and take this with you, if in doubt about facilities. They are also useful ‘back-ups’ to a PowerPoint presentation.

  • Keep OHPs simple and bold, using large font, few words and effective use of color for impact. You can use a piece of paper to cover parts of the OHP, and then reveal information bit by bit. You can put pictures or cartoons into OHPs.
    As with other audio-visual equipment, check beforehand to make sure the projector is correctly focused.



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